Type 1 Diabetes is a less common form of diabetes, accounting for only 5-10% of diabetes cases. Unlike Type 2 Diabetes, which is more prevalent in older adults, Type 1 Diabetes is typically diagnosed before the age of 30. It is an autoimmune disease in which the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the beta cells in the pancreas responsible for producing insulin. As a result, individuals with Type 1 Diabetes have a lifelong deficiency of insulin and require external insulin sources for survival.

Progression of Type 1 Diabetes:

Before the onset of overt diabetes, individuals may experience a phase called pre-diabetes. During this phase, the pancreas works harder to maintain normal blood glucose levels. Pre-diabetes is characterized by the presence of specific antibodies, such as GAD, ICA, and IAA, as well as evidence of beta cell injury and decreased insulin production.

Overt diabetes occurs when the number of beta cells is reduced to less than one-fourth of the normal amount, leading to insufficient insulin production to meet the body’s demands. At this stage, blood sugar levels become significantly elevated.

Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes:

Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes can vary among individuals, but common signs and symptoms include:

Frequent urination, including waking at night to urinate and bedwetting.

Unexplained weight loss, as the body breaks down fat and muscle for energy when glucose is not utilized properly.

Excessive thirst (polydipsia).

Increased hunger (polyphagia).

Blurred vision.

Fatigue and drowsiness.

Nausea and vomiting.

Skin, bladder, and vaginal infections.

Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes:


Treatment for Type 1 Diabetes involves lifelong insulin therapy. The specific insulin dosage varies for each individual, but the typical starting dose is around 0.4-1.0 units of insulin per kilogram of body weight per day.

Insulin can be administered through injections in different forms, including long-acting, intermediate-acting, short-acting, or rapid-acting insulin. In most cases, individuals receive a combination of long-acting insulin for maintenance and rapid-acting insulin at mealtimes (basal/bolus regimen).

Calculating insulin doses involves determining the total daily insulin coverage needed based on weight and dividing it into basal (long-acting) and bolus (rapid-acting) doses. Injection sites for insulin include the abdomen, thighs, back of arms, and buttocks. It’s important to rotate injection sites within the same area to ensure consistent absorption and prevent skin breakdown.

Insulin should be stored in the refrigerator for prolonged storage, but it can be kept at room temperature for up to one month. It is crucial to avoid exposing insulin to hot temperatures.

Possible side effects of insulin therapy include hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) from too much insulin or inadequate food intake, as well as weight gain. It’s essential to monitor blood sugar levels regularly and adjust insulin doses as need