Allergies occur when the immune system reacts strongly to foreign particles or allergens, resulting in various symptoms. These reactions can be triggered by ingestion, skin contact, injections, insect stings, or exposure to certain materials. While the specific allergens and reactions vary from person to person, there are several common types of allergies:

Food Allergy: This type of allergy can affect both infants and adults, causing adverse reactions after consuming certain foods such as eggs, fish, shellfish, soy, nuts, and more.

Dust Allergy: Common in urban areas with polluted air, dust allergies often result in continuous sneezing and respiratory discomfort.

Pet Allergy: Allergic reactions to animal fur or feathers can occur through inhalation or direct skin contact, even if the animal is not present.

Latex Allergy: Using latex products like gloves or shoes can trigger this allergy, which can be managed by limiting exposure to latex.

Sinusitis: Sinusitis, often caused by climate change, leads to symptoms like a runny nose and headaches, affecting approximately 31 million individuals.

Mold Allergy: Mold can develop in damp areas such as kitchen sinks, bathrooms, wet soil, or wooded areas, triggering allergies when inhaled or upon skin contact.

Seasonal Allergies: Seasonal allergies, also known as hay fever, occur during specific times of the year when certain plants release pollen. Medications can help alleviate symptoms.

Contact Dermatitis: Allergic reactions can result from contact with cosmetics, skin products, dyes, metals, fruit peels, or laundry products, causing skin irritation.

Drug Allergies: Certain medications like anticonvulsants, penicillin, chemotherapy drugs, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can induce allergic reactions.

The causes of allergies can vary, but some risk factors include young age, Caesarean birth, asthma, family history of allergies, and lack of sunlight exposure. Common allergenic foods include fish, shellfish, dairy products, eggs, peanuts, wheat, soy, corn, and more. Other triggers can include medication, animal products, chemicals, molds, seasonal changes, rubber, latex, metals, and insect bites.

Symptoms of allergies range from sinus-related issues like headaches, sneezing, and runny nose to respiratory difficulties, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. Allergies can also manifest as itchy nose, conjunctivitis, swollen eyes, hives, wheezing, skin rashes, and even anaphylaxis, which is a severe and potentially life-threatening allergic reaction.

Prevention involves avoiding known triggers and seeking medical assistance when symptoms occur. Allergy medications, such as nasal sprays, eye drops, and liquid medications prescribed by doctors, can provide relief. In severe cases, epinephrine injections and allergen immunotherapy may be recommended. Sublingual drugs and other treatment options may also be utilized depending on the specific allergy and individual needs.